6. Your Credit Report

Your credit report contains information about you that banks, credit unions, and credit card companies are interested in seeing before lending you money. It includes your history of borrowing and paying back loans which may include a mortgage, credit cards, student loans, car loans, etc. It will show whether you pay your bills on time and how much you owe on your accounts. Negative financial management, such as late payments, bankruptcies, collections or liens, is included in a credit report and will impact your credit score. It may also include criminal records.

How do I get a copy of my credit report?

There are three nationwide credit reporting companies, Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion. By law you are entitled to get a free copy of your credit report once a year from all three companies. You can get a free report online from AnnualCreditReport.com or by phone at 1-877-322-8228.

Credit Score - why is it important? 

Your credit score is a 3 digit number that ranges from 300 to 800 based on the information in your credit report. Your credit score will affect whether or not you can get a loan and how much interest you will need to pay. With a high score you are more likely to get a loan. With a low score you may be turned down for a loan or credit card, or be offered a very high interest rate.

Credit scores may be used by a landlord to evaluate potential renters. Insurance companies also can use credit scores to determine rates. People with high scores pay lower prices for insurance, and people with low scores often pay a higher price.

How credit scores are calculated:

graph
35% Payment history
Paying on time increases the score. Late payments, bankruptcies, liens and garnishments lower the score.
30% Amounts owed 
The percentage of the credit limit for each loan or credit card. The lower percent that is owed on each card or loan the better to increase the score. Maxing out a credit card or loan will lower the score.
15% Length of time of your credit history
Older accounts increase the score because you have long track record of paying on your debt.
10 % New credit
Opening or applying for new credit lowers the score, however if you apply for several credit options within a 60 day period, it only counts as one incident. It is assumed you are shopping for the best rate, and that is exactly what you should do if you are looking to open a new account.
10% Types of credit
Having a mix of different types of loans increases the score. For example, student loans, credit card, mortgage.

How do I get a copy of my credit score? 

To get your credit scores you can:

Beware of websites that advertise a free credit score. Some "free credit score" sites automatically sign you up for a credit monitoring service with monthly fees! 

How can I improve my credit score?

Check for errors

Write to the credit reporting company and dispute any errors

Pay your bills on time

Pay down your debt

Keep at least one credit card that you pay off each month

Beware of any organization that claims to "clean-up" your credit for you! Remember that the only two things that will repair your credit is persistence in paying your obligations and time. 

What if I don't have enough credit to have a credit score?

Establish credit. If you have not used credit cards or taken out loans you may not have enough credit history for a credit score. You will need to borrow to establish a credit history/score. If you are working and have an income you may be eligible for a credit card. Getting a credit card and using it sparingly will raise your credit score. Be sure to pay off the balance every month to avoid paying interest or going into debt. You do not need to pay interest to improve your credit score.

If you are not eligible for a regular credit card you may want to get a secured credit card. You will need to put money into a savings account that will be equal to your credit limit on the secured card. Use your credit card carefully, always paying your bill on time. With a secured card you may need to pay an annual fee. To find the lowest annual fees and interest rates on a secured card, check your local credit unions or look on BankRate.com. You may also be able to have your parents co-sign on a credit card - ask at your bank for options.

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